Wound healing is the process by which skin or other body tissue repairs itself after trauma. Trauma ranges from accidental cuts, the surgical wounds, to ulcerations.
In undamaged skin, the epidermis (surface layer) and dermis (deeper layer) form a protective barrier against the external environment. When the barrier is broken, an orchestrated cascade of biochemical events is set into motion to repair the damage. This process is divided into predictable phases: blood clotting (hemostasis), inflammation, tissue growth (proliferation) and tissue remodeling (maturation). Blood clotting may be considered to be part of the inflammation stage instead of a separate stage.
The wound healing process is not only complex but also fragile, and it is susceptible to interruption or failure leading to the formation of non-healing chronic wounds. Factors that contribute to non-healing chronic wounds are diabetes, venous or arterial disease, infection, and metabolic deficiencies of old age. An often overlooked yet cornerstone process for healing is an adequate blood supply. It is likely that increasing the velocity of blood flow in the circulatory system will decreasing healing time. It is also likely to provide enhanced conditions for healing of chronic wounds such as venous stasis and artierial insufficiency ulcers. Continuing to provide increased circulatory system blood flow velocity may have a propholactic effect preventing or significantly reducing recurrent ulceration development.
Wound care encourages and speeds wound healing via cleaning and protection from reinjury or infection. Depending on each patient's needs, it can range from the simplest first aid to entire nursing specialties such as wound, ostomy, and continence nursing and burn center care